Greetings to all,
This week we continued our look at the formation of the Empire under Augustus Caesar. His leadership gave Rome peace and stability, but this came at a price. Augustus solved some of the decayed Republic, but his solution created other problems.
Decades of civil war faced Rome with the need for change. Rome’s society, however, was built on tradition. Augustus carried himself as a leader in the old tradition, but in reality eroded all of the old checks and balances of the Republic. He was much more careful than his uncle Julius, who made no secret of his power. In reality, however, Augustus had just as much, if not more power than Julius ever did. He certainly understood the power inherent in manipulating his image. . .
The problem may not have been the power itself, but the fact that it was done more or less secretly, and so did not encourage Rome to face reality. We talked of how Rome was in a sense, ‘pretending’ — living in a fantasy land that told them that Rome was still Rome, after all. This pretending, however, can be dangerous for a civilization, because the tension between your imagination and reality can grow over time.
In their “Res Getae” assignment the students got an idea of the subtlety with which Augustus worked. He saw what happened to his uncle Julius, and modified his actions accordingly. He never (or hardly ever) took power, he waited to receive it from others. He rejected the title of Dictator which would have brought odium upon himself, but he took bits and pieces of other offices that added up to total control in the end, a kind of “majority ownership” of Rome.
Next week we will see that one problem Augustus faced was the German frontier along the Rhine and Danube river. He was right to recognize its weaknesses. This map shows the wedge into Roman territory created by the meeting of the Rhine and Danube river.
Do rivers make for good frontiers? We might think so, for rivers are not easy for armies to cross. But when compared with mountains or deserts we see that rivers can be quite porous. Neither side, after all, has a barrier to using the river on their side of territory. Furthermore, most people use rivers for fishing, travel, and commerce. Thus, rivers often act to bring people together rather than separate them. The MD/D.C./No. VA area is a good example of this. Augustus needed a new frontier, a more secure border.
Prudence might dictate falling back to something more secure. But Augustus built his power in part on the fantasy that Rome had not changed. Rome never falls back! He tried to push forward further into Germany to the more advantageous Elbe/Danube frontier, seen here below. . .
and picked the arrogant Varus to command. Varus fell for Arminius’s trap and led his army to disaster at the Battle of Tuetonburg Forest. We will discuss how Augustus was right about his frontier being vulnerable, but was he right in his solution?
We shall see that their are limits to what the military can accomplish when the situation requires a political solution While Rome would win battles against Germans in the future, they could never end their power of resistance.
Next week we will do an activity where I want the students to rethink the Roman frontier. In the ideal world Rome could have pulled back a great deal. But of course that would completely ignore political realities. If he withdrew in one place, would he have to advance in another? If so, where? I hope the students enjoyed this change of pace and the chance to view the problem in a different way.
Here is a map of the Empire from a topographical perspective:
Where could Rome get an ‘easy’ victory to allow them to withdraw on the German border? Where should troops be concentrated?
When we wrap up Augustus we will discuss various aspects of his reign. He ended a century of civil war and brought peace throughout the Roman empire. Under his leadership the economy and culture of Rome revived. The system he established did give Rome stability long after he departed, and as far as masterful politicians go, I would rank Augustus as one of the all-time greats. On the other hand, while Augustus was very effective, he had to curtail civil liberties to achieve his goals. He never sought to make Rome face reality, to take them from their current perception of reality at point ‘A’ and bring them to the necessary point ‘B.’ In this way, Augustus lacked true leadership greatness.
After Augustus we will see how the system he established fared under different emperors. Tiberius and Caligula will get our attention next week.