This week we looked at Emperors Claudius and Nero and the problems he caused Rome.
Claudius had his good points. He was intelligent and hard working. Some of his legislative and judicial reforms improved things in Rome. His bust tells us that he was a “normal” guy, and he did not demonstrate any of the insanely cruel tendencies of Caligula.
But generally he is known for three things:
1. The conquest of Britain
What Julius Caesar began in the most tentative way, Claudius finished. Ostensibly, Rome did this because Gaul may have been receiving aid from across the channel. To me at least, however, this conquest served no real purpose for Rome accept to continue to delude itself that it was still strong as ever. Some conquests could potentially make geographical sense even if based on shaky moral grounds. It’s hard to see how the conquest of Britain fits into any category except that of Claudius’s ego. But it may simply been a way to solidify his legitimacy as emperor. In other words, Claudius (a scholar, a man with a speech impediment and slightly deformed shoulder — not things Romans would have valued) may have thought that some kind of conquest was necessary to prove himself as a Roman leader.
Claudius may have further justified the action as ‘for the good of Rome,’ because if his regime faltered civil war might result, and Rome as a whole would suffer. If we accept this line of reasoning we see how Rome’s system of government may have worked against the chances of Rome’s success.
We talked of how empire expansion can in some ways, resemble acquisitions done by companies. I I listened months ago to an interview with the CEO of Ebay, who mentioned that the company’s mission was to “connect buyers and sellers.” Previously Ebay bought Skype, and then under his tenure, sold it off again. I asked the students if they had ever used Skype to call a business or seller, or if they had ever received a business call on Skype. No one had, and this was Ebay’s CEO main point. However neat Skype may be, it did not fit within their company mission. Dumping even a “neat” product made their company healthier.
So too, territorial acquisitions have to make some sense, have to fit within the “mission” of the conqueror for it to have any hope of benefitting them (I realize that for the moment, I am not directly considering the moral issue of conquest). I can’t see how Britain’s conquest could possibly fit within Rome’ s interests, though one student suggested that it fit perfectly well — Rome only cared about being bigger than before.
2. The expansion of the civil service
Claudius can be admired for having a soft spot for recently freed slaves who showed intelligence. But, being clever, he used them to expand his own power. The civil service was in many ways necessary, but it was also a tool to bypass whatever vestiges remained of Republican government in the Senate and other elected officers. The Senate did little to object. Some have commented that our own predilection for appointing ‘Czars’ (“Education Czar,” “Drug Czar,” over the last 20-25 years for the war on drugs, the economy, trade, etc. does the same thing, putting more and more in the hands of the executive branch.
3. His taste in women
For all his intelligence, Claudius had a blind spot when it came to women. His first wife was named Urganulilla (enough said there), who may have murdered his sister. Some suggest he divorced his second wife for emotional abuse. His third wife had numerous affairs and probably involved herself in a plot to overthrow him. Grudgingly, he executed her for treason. His fourth wife probably instigated his death via poisoned mushrooms. Well, no one’s perfect!
Claudius seemed to have a thing for women stronger in personality than him, and maybe was a glutton for punishment. Perhaps a connection exists between his taste in women and his love for the gladitorial games, which he frequented.
Nero’s reign, like that of Caligula and other bad emperors, raises a question: Can anyone be, in historian Will Durant’s words, “both omnipotent and sane?” Nero was not on the scale of say, Caligula, but clearly he distanced himself from reality.
He had a passion for the arts. He spent much of his time devoted to singing. He held concerts, where attendance was unofficially mandatory for Rome’s political class. The Roman historian Seutonius writes that some feigned death or heart attack in hopes of being carried out of these concerts early. No doubt many volunteers rushed to the scene to “help” if they could. Nero appears not to have noticed.
Nero’s passion surely must have struck the Romans as bizarre. Imagine a campaign ad for a president that showed him, not shaking hands or looking smart at a desk, but taking lessons in how to sing an opera aria.
Nero attended the Greek Olympics in AD 68, giving many concerts to “wild applause.” Nero also entered the chariot race, but alas, his chariot broke during the competition and he did not finish. Nevertheless the Greeks awarded Nero first prize, and gave him their most distinguished award for excellence in competition. Any normal person should have seen right through this, but Nero appears to have missed what the Greeks were trying to accomplish. He proclaimed that the Greeks recognized “true greatness” and in appreciation removed Greece from the list of provinces that paid annual tributes to Rome.
Whatever their faults, no one ever said the Greeks were idiots.
I find something almost childlike about Nero’s utter lack of self-awareness. But as we have said in previous updates, distancing oneself from reality to such a degree, combined with great power, would inevitably lead to disaster. Nero’s self-delusion manifested itself in other ways. He may have murdered his mother to obtain the divorce and remarriage he sought. He may have had a hand in the great fire of 64 AD that burned much of Rome. Nero had always talked of redesigning Rome on more aesthetic lines, and now with much of the city destroyed he could (Christians became a convenient scapegoat). He almost certainly did not really “fiddle while Rome burned,” but the story points to a truth about his character.
When he died by suicide, he is reported to have lamented, “What a great artist dies with me!” delusional to the bitter end. Few of us will always like the limits imposed on us by law, custom, circumstance, and conscience, but maybe these are some of the things God uses to keep us from being enslaved to our own self, and trapped in our own view of reality.
The aftermath of Nero’s death removed all traces of what remained of the Republic. While under Augustus, the Senate at least served as a rubber stamp, now the position of emperor simply went to the general who could control Rome.
The Romans were glad enough to get rid of Nero, but eliminating him meant the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a power vacuum that needed filled. Rome burned in A.D. 64, but Rome itself played with fire with a political system bound to rupture at some point.